Monday, April 04, 2005

China, Political institutions

The Ch'ing had come to power because of their success at winning Chinese over to their side; in the late 17th century they adroitly pursued similar policies to win the adherence of the Chinese literati. Ch'ing emperors learned Chinese, addressed their subjects using Confucian rhetoric, reinstated the civil service examination system and the Confucian curriculum,

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Bloch, Ernest

Bloch studied with the noted Swiss composer Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and in Belgium with the violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. From 1911 to 1915 he taught at the Geneva Conservatory.

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Lenin Peak

Formerly  Mount Kaufman,   highest summit (23,406 feet [7,134 m]) of the Trans-Alay Range on the frontier of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Once thought to be the highest mountain in what was then the Soviet Union, Lenin Peak was relegated to third place by the discovery in 1932–33 that Stalin Peak (called Communism Peak after 1962) was higher and by the finding in 1943 that Victory Peak was also higher. The peak is named after the Soviet

Friday, April 01, 2005


Latin  Arretium,   city, capital of Arezzo provincia, Toscana (Tuscany) regione of north-central Italy, in a fertile plain near the confluence of the Chiana and Arno rivers southeast of Florence. An important Etruscan city, it was known to the Romans as Arretium and was noted for its red-clay Arretine pottery. A flourishing commune in the Middle Ages, it fell to Florence in 1384 and later became

Howell, James

Anglo-Welsh writer known for his Epistolae Ho-Elianae, 4 vol. (1645–55), early and lively essays in letter form. Though vividly recording contemporary phenomena, they lack historical reliability because of plagiarizing and the addition of fictitious dates—despite the author's position as historiographer royal, a post

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


An enzyme that brings about (catalyzes) the reaction by which hydrogen peroxide is decomposed to water and oxygen. Found extensively in mammalian tissues, catalase prevents the accumulation of and protects the body tissues from damage by peroxide, which is continuously produced by numerous metabolic reactions.

Holbein, Hans, The Elder

Nothing is known of Holbein's early life and training, but he was married and established as a

Monday, March 28, 2005

Ruways, Ar-

Also spelled  Ruweis, or Ru'ays,  site of a giant industrial complex, Abu Dhabi emirate, United Arab Emirates. It lies along the Persian Gulf about 140 miles (220 km) west of Abu Dhabi, the national capital. Ar-Ruways has natural-gas-processing plants under the control of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). Ar-Ruways has a small airport and is linked by road with Abu Dhabi city and Jabal az-Zannah.

Sunday, March 27, 2005


Also spelled  Adygeya  republic, southwestern Russia. It extends from the Kuban River south to the Caucasus foothills. Adygea was established as an oblast (province) in 1922 for the Adyghian people, one of two major branches of the Circassians (Cherkess), who make up about one-fifth of its total population. Apart from the foothills in the south, which are covered in deciduous forest, most of Adygea